2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has distinct optical and electronic properties compared to aggregated MoS2, enabling wide use of these materials for electronic and biomedical applications. However, the hazard potential of MoS2 has not been studied extensively. Here, a comprehensive analysis of the pulmonary hazard potential of three aqueous suspended forms of MoS2—aggregated MoS2 (Agg-MoS2), MoS2 exfoliated by lithiation (Lit-MoS2), and MoS2 dispersed by Pluronic F87 (PF87-MoS2)—is presented. No cytotoxicity is detected in THP-1 and BEAS-2B cell lines. However, Agg-MoS2 induces strong proinflammatory and profibrogenic responses in vitro. In contrast, Lit- and PF87-MoS2 have little or no effect. In an acute toxicity study in mice, Agg-MoS2 induces acute lung inflammation, while Lit-MoS2 and PF87-MoS2 have little or no effect. In a subchronic study, there is no evidence of pulmonary fibrosis in response to all forms of MoS2. These data suggest that exfoliation attenuates the toxicity of Agg-MoS2, which is an important consideration toward the safety evaluation and use of nanoscale MoS2 materials for industrial and biological applications.
The pulmonary hazard potential of three forms of MoS2—aggregated (Agg-MoS2), lithiation-exfoliated (Lit-MoS2), and Pluronic F87 dispersed MoS2 (PF87-MoS2)—is studied. Although Agg-MoS2 induces profibrogenic responses in vitro and acute lung inflammation in vivo, Lit- and PF87-MoS2 have no such effect. These data suggest that exfoliation attenuates Agg-MoS2’s toxicity, which is important toward its industrial and biological applications.
Published in: "Small".