Graphene charge carriers behave as relativistic massless fermions, thereby exhibiting a variety of counter-intuitive behaviors. In particular, at p-n junctions, they behave as photons encountering a negative index media, therefore experiencing a peculiar refraction known as Veselago lensing. However, the way Dirac fermions flow through a Veselago lens remains largely unexplored experimentally. Here, a novel approach to create a movable and tunable circular Veselago lens in graphene is proposed, using the polarized tip of a scanning gate microscope. Scanning the tip in the vicinity of a graphene constriction while recording the device conductance yields images related to the electron flow through a circular Veselago lens, revealing a high current density in the lens core, as well as two low current density zones along transport axis. Tight-binding simulations reveal the crucial the p-n junction smoothness on these phenomena. The present research adds new dimensions in the control and understanding of Dirac fermions optical elements, a prerequisite to engineer relativistic electron optics devices.
Published : "arXiv Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics".