*To be published in Springer Handbook of Surface Science (Springer Verlag) [Preprint]* The capability to display images containing chemical, magnetic and structural information and to perform spectroscopy and diffraction from a {mu}m-sized area makes cathode lens electron microscopy one of the most used and reliable techniques to analyze surfaces at the mesoscale. Thanks to its versatility, LEEM/PEEM systems are currently employed to study model systems in the fields of nanotechnology, nanomagnetism, material science, catalysis, energy storage, thin films and 2D materials. In the following chapter, we will present a brief but complete review of this class of instruments. After an historical digression in the introducing section, we will show first the basic operating principles of a simple setup and then the elements that can be added to improve the performances. Later, two sections will be dedicated to LEEM and PEEM respectively. In both cases, a theoretical discussion on the contrast mechanisms will prelude to a showcase of the operating modes of the instrument, with clear examples that will show the best performances available nowadays. Finally, a brief discussion about the future developments of cathode lens electron microscopy will close the chapter.

Published : "arXiv Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics".