The layered graphene systems exhibit the rich and unique excitation spectra arising from the electron-electron Coulomb interactions. The generalized tight-binding model is developed to cover the planar/buckled/cylindrical structures, specific lattice symmetries, different layer numbers, distinct configurations, one-three dimensions, complicated intralayer and interlayer hopping integrals, electric field, magnetic quantization; any temperatures and dopings simultaneously. Furthermore, we modify the random-phase approximation to agree with the layer-dependent Coulomb potentials with the Dyson equation, so that these two methods can match with other under various external fields. The electron-hole excitations and plasmon modes are greatly diversified by the above-mentioned critical factors; that is, there exist the diverse (momentum. frequency)-related phase diagrams. They provide very effective deexcitation scatterings and thus dominate the Coulomb decay rates. Graphene, silicene and germanene might quite differ from one another in Coulomb excitations and decays because of the strength of spin-orbital coupling. Part of theoretical predictions have confirmed the experimental measurements, and most of them require the further examinations. Comparisons with the other models are also made in detail.
Published : "arXiv Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics".