The electrical Hall effect is the production of a transverse voltage under an out-of-plane magnetic field. Historically, studies of the Hall effect have led to major breakthroughs including the discoveries of Berry curvature and the topological Chern invariants. In magnets, the internal magnetization allows Hall conductivity in the absence of external magnetic field. This anomalous Hall effect (AHE) has become an important tool to study quantum magnets. In nonmagnetic materials without external magnetic fields, the electrical Hall effect is rarely explored because of the constraint by time-reversal symmetry. However, strictly speaking, only the Hall effect in the linear response regime, i.e., the Hall voltage linearly proportional to the external electric field, identically vanishes due to time-reversal symmetry. The Hall effect in the nonlinear response regime, on the other hand, may not be subject to such symmetry constraints. Here, we report the observation of the nonlinear Hall effect (NLHE) in the electrical transport of the nonmagnetic 2D quantum material, bilayer WTe2. Specifically, flowing an electrical current in bilayer WTe2 leads to a nonlinear Hall voltage in the absence of magnetic field. The NLHE exhibits unusual properties sharply distinct from the AHE in metals: The NLHE shows a quadratic I-V characteristic; It strongly dominates the nonlinear longitudinal response, leading to a Hall angle of about 90 degree. We further show that the NLHE directly measures the “dipole moment” of the Berry curvature, which arises from layer-polarized Dirac fermions in bilayer WTe2. Our results demonstrate a new Hall effect and provide a powerful
Published : "arXiv Mesoscale and Nanoscale Physics".